At the time of writing
14.17.3 was already released. So I guess the simple answer is waiting a few days is the most practial thing you can do. It might even possible that you had to re-pull the
node:14-alpine to get the updated image.
But if you really want to see what needs to be done, you can look into the Dockerfile of every official docker image. For your
node:14-alpine image it's located here: https://github.com/nodejs/docker-node/blob/main/14/alpine3.14/Dockerfile
And from line 19 onwards you see the following:
ENV NODE_VERSION 14.17.3 # line 3
set -eu; \
curl -fsSLO --compressed "https://unofficial-builds.nodejs.org/download/release/v$NODE_VERSION/node-v$NODE_VERSION-linux-$ARCH-musl.tar.xz"; \
echo "$CHECKSUM node-v$NODE_VERSION-linux-$ARCH-musl.tar.xz" | sha256sum -c - \
&& tar -xJf "node-v$NODE_VERSION-linux-$ARCH-musl.tar.xz" -C /usr/local --strip-components=1 --no-same-owner \
&& ln -s /usr/local/bin/node /usr/local/bin/nodejs;
that's what they did to install the binary distribution of node (albeit from line 26 onwards you can see to compile all yourself). Verifying the sha256 checksum is optional, though.
So you can do the same and overwrite the node version inside the alpine container like so.
Edit: If you don't like hardcoding the version, you can automate it with curl and jq (which needs to be installed):
# Install jq and curl dependencies
apk add --no-cache jq curl
# Get major.minor version (that is v14.xx for node:14-alpine)
export NODE_MAJOR_MINOR_VERSION=$(node --version | cut -d. -f1,2)
# Dynamically receive the newest version for the major version of this image
export DOWNLOAD_VERSION=$(curl -fsSL --compressed https://unofficial-builds.nodejs.org/download/release/index.json | jq --raw-output ".|select(.version | startswith(\"$NODE_MAJOR_MINOR_VERSION\"))|.version" | head -1)
# Download the suitable tarball
curl -fsSLO --compressed "https://unofficial-builds.nodejs.org/download/release/$DOWNLOAD_VERSION/node-$DOWNLOAD_VERSION-linux-x64-musl.tar.xz"
# Uncompress the tarball
tar -xJf "node-$DOWNLOAD_VERSION-linux-x64-musl.tar.xz" -C /usr/local --strip-components=1 --no-same-owner
# Overwrite symlink node -> nodejs
ln -sf /usr/local/bin/node /usr/local/bin/nodejs