This is an isolated update to a previous question I asked regarding the same issue after a Windows update in June 2021.
I didn't take this advice and instead continued troubleshooting.
While trying to uninstall previous Windows updates, I found that the
Tiworker.exe (Windows Modules Installer Worker) that had been
showing abnormal behaviour was located in the folder of a recent update.
Particularly, servicing stack 10.0.19041.1081 (and funnily, its
installation date roughly matches when my computer broke down.)
I tried uninstalling it, but it doesn't uninstall.
Now, wishfully thinking that I have nearly identified the problem, how can I uninstall this servicing stack?
EDIT: July 2021- Heeding @Ramhound and @syseng21, I reinstalled Windows on my PC and well, it is working. The lesson is to just reinstall Windows if it doesn't work.
EDIT: December 2022- Thanks to the brilliant efforts by @Henke, an in-place upgrade maybe a better(albeit, slower) option for most people. Here's the link to Henke's detailed guide to perform it.