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Configuration: 4x1TB HDDs added into a storage space in Windows10 with 2-way mirroring, resulting in 2TB storage (so, I believe, "software-RAID10"): screenshot of the setup

The question is - once I re-install my Windows copy to either Windows10 or whatever goes after it in future, what happens to my software RAID?

Would Windows10 just pick it up automagically or would it need additional actions from my side?

If I install some other OS (e.g. Unix-based) - would it be the same? What happens to the data stored? Any way to help myself avoiding problems beforehand with this setup?

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You have set up a proprietary storage technology called "Storage Space" in your system. Regardless what this is supposed to do internally ("software-RAID10" as you thought) or anything else, the on-disk format has not been disclosed.

I pretend that currently (24.8.2021) no unix-like operating system is able mount, read and write to it.

As for a Windows 10 operating system I would expect that to be recognized.

Avoid that technology. The forums are full of people searching for help with their broken "Storage Spaces" stuff.

Do a search to check availability and price of recovery software for "Storage Space" (if any at all).

Better use open source products. 2-way-mirroring is not a backup replacement.

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So I've decided to test this myself, the answer is the following:

  1. Windows 10 "sees" the storage space even after system re-installation (even during it)
  2. Ubuntu 20.04 didn't mount the storage space, thus we were not able to access the data from Ubuntu

Side comments:

  1. when emulating a disk failure in Windows (just disconnecting 1/4 disks), a weird thing was that Windows didn't give ANY notification on that. Basically if you don't check your storage space, you won't have an idea that something is broken
  2. "software raid" doesn't equal to "backing up", meaning that all the important data should be also backed up externally. My situation was "a simple home-based storage with some redundancy", so default Windows Storage Spaces software does the job for me well

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