I know how to these two steps separately, but don't know how to combine them.

Ensuring a cell can be filled only if a dependent cell is filled can be achieved via inserting a =NOT(ISBLANK($A$1)) formula in the Data Validation prompt, as explained here.

Limiting a cell to two possible values can be done via 'Data Validation' as explained in the answers to this question.

But how can I combine these two features? I don't think one can have two data validation options on one same cell.

  • 1
    something like: =AND(NOT(ISBLANK($A$1)),OR(B1=0,B1=1))
    – gns100
    Sep 2 at 19:50

If you don’t need a drop-down list box, you can try a custom formula like: =AND((E1<>""),OR(F1=1,F1=0)).

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If the action does not meet the conditions, you will get the following promp.

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