I understand a USB to SATA cable won't do it due to the need for a 12V supply for the drives to spin up.
There are plenty of 3.5″-compatible USB-SATA adapters with external power supply, typically in desktop "dock" ("HDD docking station") form factor – although you can find them in small "adapter" form as well. Either way, they cost about the same amount as bus-powered 2.5″ ones.
(Note: Although many such docking stations have two HDD bays, not all of them support active transfers from both simultaneously, and not all of them allow hot-swapping one disk while another is active. Mine will actually do a full reset on hotplug, interrupting any active operation of disk A whenever I need to swap disk 1. So if that's a concern, might be better to get two single-bay docks instead.)
In the past, there even used to be USB-powered 3.5″ adapters (and/or external HDDs) – they had two USB connectors, one for additional power. (Converting 5V to 12V is possible, but the HDD also needs more current than a single USB 2.0 port could provide.) With modern USB-C connectors I wouldn't be surprised if you could find a USB-C or Thunderbolt bus-powered adapter somewhere, too, although with your amount of storage it's probably better to use an external-powered one.
I believe I've also seen stationary 4…8-disk "NAS" enclosures but I'm not familiar with those products.