If I minimize the application that I'm currently using, it goes to the end of the dock.
How many applications can I minimize like this?
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The dock icons shrink as you minimize more applications. The dock height remains the same, but those icons inside will shrink to fit all the minimized windows.
I don't believe there's a limit to the number of windows you can have. I just minimized 35 safari windows, and had no problems.
For the record - I opened 35 windows just for this issue. I don't normally have so many windows open :)
The real answer is that there is a practical limit on the dock icons sizes. The OS is limited by memory, and virtual memory, but allows an unlimited number of windows... The Dock "interface" is practically limited due to the vertical size of the icons. The dock that has hundreds of windows will be very small vertically, and horizontally... But that's where the Dock Magnification option really comes into play...
The real limitation is going to be the speed your computer, the amount of memory, and disk space....