I recently switched from bash to zsh. In bash, one way (besides recursive search) that I used to find previously-run commands was history | grep whatever, where whatever is the bit of command I remember.

In zsh, this isn't working. history returns only a few items, even though my .zsh_history file contains many entries, which I have configured it to do.

How can I output my whole history, suitable for searching with grep?


3 Answers 3


History accepts a range in zsh entries as [first] [last] arguments, so to get them all run history 0.

To get the zsh help (at least with mind) type Alt-h over the history command and this will bring up the help for built-ins.

  • 8
    Great! That's an annoying default for me, though, so I'm adding this to my aliases file: alias history="history 0" Jan 12, 2011 at 22:06
  • 12
    Not that it matters but the history list starts at 1 and not 0. Dec 2, 2011 at 14:40
  • 9
    I'm using this alias myself: alias h='history 1 | grep' Apr 2, 2016 at 15:03
  • 4
    This doesn't seem to work for me: my ~/.zsh_history has 10066 lines, but history 0 (or its equivalent, fc -l 0), only prints out 4999 lines.
    – jayhendren
    May 31, 2017 at 17:29
  • 16
    To the history 1 | grep people, I hope you know about ctrl+r - best trick/shortcut ever!
    – Emil Vatai
    Mar 9, 2019 at 1:38

The accepted answer is correct, but it’s worth noting that you don’t need to call the external grep binary to do the search, since that ability is baked in. I have this function defined in my .zshrc:

histsearch() { fc -lim "*$@*" 1 }


  • fc is the zsh builtin that controls the interactive history. history is equivalent to fc -l.

  • The -m flag requires a pattern, which must be quoted.

  • The -i flag adds a timestamp.

  • fc has many more tricks up its sleeve (e.g. limiting the search to internal history for the current session). See the zshbuiltins(1) man page or the official documentation.

Edit (2021-01-27):

A major advantage of using this method over just grepping the zsh history file is you get human-readable timestamps via -i. Of course, this only works if you’ve enabled the saving of timestamps to the history file in the first place:


Over the years, I’ve also added the -D flag to my function, which shows the runtime of the command in history. (This is again dependent on EXTENDED_HISTORY.) Plus, I’ve renamed the function to hgrep, which I find easier to remember:

hgrep () { fc -Dlim "*$@*" 1 }
  • 3
    Better yet is to use "*$@*" (note additional stars) pattern instead of "$@" as the latter yields only exact matches. May 7, 2018 at 11:50
  • 2
    You’re completely right, @PiotrDobrogost! I’m not sure how I managed to submit this answer in the state that I did — I’m guessing I must’ve typed that function from memory. As it stands it’s not very usable, so I’m going to edit the answer to incorporate the asterisks.
    – wjv
    May 7, 2018 at 13:15
  • 1
    I just switched to zsh from bash, this helped me out. I wished I had this tip years ago. All that time I've been foolishly using grep.
    – Halfstop
    Apr 24, 2020 at 13:53
  • Using grep is certainly not "foolish", @Halfstop. In fact, I would say it's the obvious thing to do, and probably how most people would accomplish this task daily. My answer is more of a "zsh insider alternative". (But it turns out that it does have certain advantages, as I pointed out in the edit I made to the answer in January this year.)
    – wjv
    Apr 6, 2021 at 8:04
  • The 2nd quote in the last command is probably a typo.
    – Teddy C
    Sep 9, 2021 at 7:01

Have a look at fzf. It helps not only finding "whatever-particles" in your shell history, but also in other interesting places, e.g. browser history, directory history, etc.

fzf is a command-line fuzzy finder. That means you can search for particles or fractions of what you are looking for and it will display a collection of matches which you can continuously refine. It's really a game changer.

The homepage of the author contains a number of illustrative examples.

  • Consider adding some reference to this answer supporting what you state. Oct 9, 2017 at 22:44
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