I'm currently resurrecting an ancient Amstrad 5086, containing an 8MHz Intel 8086 cpu, the classic 640kB of ram, Windows 3.0 and EGA graphics. Unfortunately, I only seem to be able to run Windows with the CGA-Monochrome driver, as far as I can find out the colour drivers need at least a 286. I hope I'm wrong, and someone can help me get it working in colour!
The Windows 3.0 EGA and VGA drivers use 80186 opcodes, so won't work on an 8086 PC. The only way to use Microsoft's drivers is to replace the 8086 processor with a V30, which supports the opcodes used by the driver. This isn't a simple operation, since you've got to desolder the 8086 without damaging the motherboard.
As of February 2013, a version of the VGA driver has been created which uses only 8086 opcodes and so will work on an unmodified Amstrad 2086 / 3086 / 5086. See http://www.vintage-computer.com/vcforum/showthread.php?35593-Windows-3-0-VGA-color-driver-for-8088-XT
Wow, glutton for punishment eh? :)
Are you sure there is an EGA or better video card in there? CGA isn't "monochrome", it's 4-colour.
There was never a 286 requirement for EGA that I'm aware of (it's been a while though :) ). You just need to ensure the right driver is installed and that you have configured Windows to use EGA.
Here's a page that has some active Win3X EGA driver links.
Here's a how-to page with the basics of enabling VGA in Windows 3.1 -- Maybe it will be of help getting your EGA running as well.
Hope that helps...