You want an automatic URL link, stored in a file in your file system, to open.
The way to do this is with a minimalist
.HTML file. For example, to take you to the Google home page, place the following code in a file named
<title>Google automatic redirect</title>
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0; url=http://www.google.com/" />
<h1>For older browsers, click Redirect</h1>
When you open (i.e double click) on this file, the OS will open your default browser (e.g. Firefox) and render this little HTML file, which has a URL redirect in the header, which in turn will automatically open the URL in the redirect.
This can be adapted to take you to the online file as per your question.
The URL contains the protocol (e.g. HTTP), so just make sure that it's in there. To be more minimalist, you can omit the
I tried the other answers on this page with Ubuntu 16.04 without success, but this solution works.