In an interactive console like irb, sometimes something will go wrong and the console becomes unresponsive. One solution is to suspend the process, then kill it.

To suspend the process, I can press Control+Z. To kill that process, I can run ps -ef | grep 'irb' to list all the processes and show only the ones that contain 'irb', then get the process ID from that list and type kill [insert PID here].

That's a hassle. I know that there's a way to just suspend the process, then type kill [some symbol here], with the symbol representing "the last process that was suspended."

What's the command-line symbol for "the PID of the last suspended process"?


You might be looking for the $! variable (bash manual, section Special Parameters).

However, you don't need the PID – the built-in kill command also accepts job identifiers, such as %2, which are shown when you press Ctrl-Z or type jobs. You can use %, %+ or %% to refer to the latest job. (Other possibilities are in bash manual, section Job Control.)

[4]+  Stopped                 python
$ kill %4
  • I think kill % was what I was looking for. Though I suppose this is actually the last job started rather than the last one suspended, for me this is typically the same one. – Nathan Long Oct 13 '11 at 20:18
  • 1
    @NathanLong: No, % is the last suspended job. – grawity Oct 13 '11 at 20:48

jobs -p %

It shows PID of last suspended job (after pressing Ctrl+z).

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