What is the Linux command for display the route taken to a website?
traceroute. See here for all the options.
EDIT: Essentially, when your computer wants to visit a web page, there is generally no direct path that you can take, and it must go through a series of hops. When you run the traceroute command, it simply prints the hops. Usually, this process takes fractions of a second, but sometimes, if there is a failure point, it may never complete.
In those cases, traceroute is used to figure out the point of failure. One will see the hops made, and can in many cases conclude that it is the fault of the last hop. Unfortunately, if there were a way around this failed node, it most probably would have been found by the routing algorithm itself, so generally you just have to wait for someone to fix the server.
Note that large sites like Google use a content distribution network (CDN) so may dynamically route requests to different server pools depending on load. So it isn't definite that a traceroute will follow the same path, but likely if done near to the time the page was loaded.