I think \n moves the needle down, and \r moves the needle to the beginning of a line (left align)? I'm not sure, though. So, if I'm wrong please correct me....

Anyway, I was told that Windows and Linux handle newlines and carriage returns differently. I would like to know how they handle them differently and some places where it's important to remember. Thanks for answering.

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    Don't call them \r and \n, since how \n is handled depends on where you're using it. Better to call them CR and LF. Commented Jan 3, 2012 at 7:08
  • Ignacio, those acronyms have no meaning to me. What do you call this :/? OH... LINE FEED and CARRIAGE RETURN. Thanks, sleske. Commented Jan 3, 2012 at 9:01
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    @IgnacioVazquez-Abrams Is \n not identical to LF? On any ASCII chart, isn't character 13=\n=LF ?
    – barlop
    Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 3:28
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    @barlop: Not in C when outputting in Windows. Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 3:29
  • @IgnacioVazquez-Abrams C doesn't rewrite the ASCII table though. I agree \n may not function as a line feed but that doesn't mean it's not the LF character. (more of a question since I know you know more than me)
    – barlop
    Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 3:32

4 Answers 4


I think \n moves the needle down, and \r moves the needle to the beginning of a line (left align)? I'm not sure, though

This is true, more or less, but mostly a historical curiosity. Originally, linefeed (LF) was used to advance the paper by one line on printers and hardcopy terminals (teleprinters); carriage return (CR) returned the print head to the start of the line.

This probably still works on modern printers when used in "text mode", but is otherwise of little relevance today.

Anyway, I was told that Windows and Linux handle newlines and carriage returns differently.

The difference is simply: OS designers had to choose how to represent the start of a new line in text in computer files. For various historical reasons, in the Unix/Linux world a single LF character was chosen as the newline marker; MS-DOS chose CR+LF, and Windows inherited this. Thus different platforms use different conventions.

In practice, this is becoming less and less of a problem. The newline marker is really only relevant for pograms that process "plain text", and there are not that many - it mostly only affects program source code, configuration files, and some simple text files with documentation. Nowadays most programs handling these kinds of files (editors, compilers etc.) can handle both newline conventions, so it does not matter which one you choose.

There are some cases where tools insist on "their" newline convention (e.g. Unix shell scripts must not use CR+LF), in which case you must use the right one.

  • Same line of questioning: do programming languages recognize \n\r and \n as being the same? For example, if I were parsing a text file that was edited on someone else's PC and contained both the Linux and Windows version of line breaks, would performing a preg_match for \n and \n\r give me different results? Commented Jan 3, 2012 at 9:06
  • @千里ちゃん: This totally depends on the programming language, compiler etc. In particular, if you use regexes, it will depend on the regex engine you use - some distinguish different line endings, some do no (most can be configured either way, I believe).
    – sleske
    Commented Jan 3, 2012 at 9:14
  • @千里ちゃん: If you have a question on how some system/programming language/regular expression engine handles different newline conventions, just ask this as a separate question.
    – sleske
    Commented Jan 3, 2012 at 9:14
  • you should be writing \r\n not the wrong way round as you are. As to programming languages, they would be able to read individual characters and you the programmer can see which is used in the input, and you the programmer can also do as you wish for the output. Just as you could say "Write ABC followed by \r\r\r\n" whatever characters you want to stick on the end! some other characters may be non printable and no graphical or whatever. They may have some built in functions like println, and what they use for their new line would be one or the other, it can't be both.
    – barlop
    Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 3:22
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    Barring regexes, most programming environments that I work with (and presumably most sane programming environments) will handle this problem automatically. Always use \n on its own and either LF or CRLF will be output depending on what is correct in the current environment (or, heck, LFCR if you're on some wacky Sun something). Using \r\n in programs is the worse idea, because under the compilers I'm familiar with that would result in CRLF in *nix (bad) and CRCRLF in Windows (bad). Java is the one exception I know of (and I only remembered that by reading another comment re this question). Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 10:21

CR and LF

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) defined control-characters including CARRIAGE-RETURN (CR) and LINE-FEED (LF) that were (and still are) used to control the print-position on printers in a way analogous to the mechanical typewriters that preceded early computer printers.

Platform dependency

In Windows the traditional line-separator in text files is CR followed by LF

In old (pre OSX) Apple Macintosh systems the traditional line separator in text files was CR

In Unix and Linux, the traditional line-separator in text files is LF.

\n and \r

In many programming and scripting languages \n means "new line". Sometimes (but not always) this means the ASCII LINE-FEED character (LF), which, as you say, moves the cursor (or print position) down one line. In a printer or typewriter, this would actually move the paper up one line.

Invariably \r means the ASCII CARRIAGE-RETURN character (CR) whose name actually comes from mechanical typewriters where there was a carriage-return key that caused the roller ("carriage") that carried the paper to move to the right, powered by a spring, as far as it would go. Thus setting the current typing position to the left margin.


In some programming languages \n can mean a platform-dependent sequence of characters that end or separate lines in a text file. For example in Perl, print "\n" produces a different sequence of characters on Linux than on Windows.

In Java, best practise, if you want to use the native line endings for the runtime platform, is not to use \n or \r at all. You should use System.getProperty("line.separator"). You should use \n and \r where you want LF and CR regardless of platform (e.g. as used in HTTP, FTP and other Internet communications protocols).

Unix stty

In a Unix shell, the stty command can be used to cause the shell to translate between these various conventions. For example stty -onlcr will cause the shell to subsequently translate all outgoing LFs to CR LF.

Linux and OSX follow Unix conventions

Text files

Text files are still enormously important and widely used. For example, HTML and XML are examples of text file. Most of the important Internet protocols, such as HTTP, follow text-file conventions and include specifications for line-endings.


Most printers other than the very cheapest, still respect CR and LF. In fact they are fundamental to the most widely used page description languages - PCL and Postscript.

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    Note on Java: It's not generally true that you should "not use \n or \r at all". It's just that in Java, "\n" is always LF, and "\r" is always CR. This may be just what you want: If you want a specific line ending style, use them; if you explicitly want the native line ending of the computer you are running on, then use line.separator. It really depends on what you want.
    – sleske
    Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 8:42
  • And BTW, println() automatically uses line.separator, so if you want native line endings, you can use println() (and if you need a certain specific type of line ending, then don't use it, but use "\n" etc. explicitly).
    – sleske
    Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 8:44
  • @sleske: Good points. I'll update my answer accordingly. Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 10:09
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    Are there any languages or compilers where \n is a control character other than ASCII LF (other than EBCDIC-based systems)? I'm referring to what \n means in a string or character literal, not to the effect of sending it to a file or output device. Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 10:37
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    @KeithThompson: For Java: Yes, \n is always ASCII (and Unicode) code 10, because the JLS says so explicitly (JLS 3.10.6, "Escape Sequences for Character and String Literals" - I checked :-)). For other languages -- good question.
    – sleske
    Commented Jan 4, 2012 at 11:00

In short, was needed for printers, but now the OSes do it slightly differently. In most cases, it is fine to just do both CR and LF by doing \r\n and in most cases, this will work fine.

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    Does Linux just ignore the \r or does it cause some kind of behavior change? Commented Aug 29, 2019 at 16:24

Linux does not ignore \r. Think of what it does. You can carriage return multiple times, you'll still end up at the same place, the beginning of the line.

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