I need to substitute some text inside a text file with a replacement. Usually I would do something like

sed -i 's/text/replacement/g' path/to/the/file

The problem is that both text and replacement are complex strings containing dashes, slashes, blackslashes, quotes and so on. If I escape all necessary characters inside text the thing becomes quickly unreadable. On the other hand I do not need the power of regular expressions: I just need to substitute the text literally.

Is there a way to do text substitution without using regular expressions with some bash command?

It would be rather trivial to write a script that does this, but I figure there should exist something already.

  • Necessary to do it through bash? A simplistic solution would be to open in Word and do a find and replace all – Akash May 9 '12 at 15:04
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    @akash Because systems that have bash always ship with Microsoft Word? ;) No.. Just kidding. The OP might want to do this on a remote machine or for a batch of files though. – slhck May 9 '12 at 15:07
  • @slhck :) Well, I guess gedit should have a similar option – Akash May 9 '12 at 15:09
  • An option would be to somehow correctly escape everything before passing it to sed, which is probably a futile effort considering all the switches and platform differences. – l0b0 May 9 '12 at 15:11

10 Answers 10


When you don't need the power of regular expressions, don't use it. That is fine.
But, this is not really a regular expression.

sed 's|literal_pattern|replacement_string|g'

So, if / is your problem, use | and you don't need to escape the former.

ps: about the comments, also see this Stackoverflow answer on Escape a string for sed search pattern.

Update: If you are fine using Perl try it with \Q and \E like this,
perl -pe 's|\Qliteral_pattern\E|replacement_string|g'
RedGrittyBrick has also suggested a similar trick with stronger Perl syntax in a comment here

  • Thank you, I did not know about the difference between / and | – Andrea May 9 '12 at 15:18
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    I'm not sure this answer is useful... The only difference between s||| and s/// is that the seperator character is different and so that one character doesn't need escaping. You could equally do s###. The real issue here is that the OP doesn't want to have to worry about escaping the contents of literal_pattern (which is not literal at all and will be interpreted as a regex). – Benj May 9 '12 at 15:31
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    This will not avoid the interpretation of other special characters. What if search for 1234.*aaa with your solution it match much more than the intended 1234\.\*aaa. – Matteo May 9 '12 at 15:47
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    This answer should not be accepted – Steven Lu Aug 4 '16 at 18:01
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    This misses the point entirely. The text to be matched could contain any wierdness. In my case it's a random password. You know how those go – Christian Bongiorno Jun 11 '18 at 18:01
export FIND='find this'
export REPLACE='replace with this'
ruby -p -i -e "gsub(ENV['FIND'], ENV['REPLACE'])" path/to/file

This is the only 100% safe solution here, because:

  • It's a static substition, not a regexp, no need to escape anything (thus, superior to using sed)
  • It won't break if your string contains } char (thus, superior to a submitted Perl solution)
  • It won't break with any character, because ENV['FIND'] is used, not $FIND. With $FIND or your text inlined in Ruby code, you could hit a syntax error if your string contained an unescaped '.
  • I had to use export FIND='find this; export REPLACE='replace with this'; in my bash script so that ENV['FIND'] and ENV['replace'] had the expected values. I was replacing some really long encrypted strings in a file. This was just the ticket. – DMfll Jun 24 '16 at 12:45
  • This is a good answer answer because it's reliable and ruby is ubiquitous. Based on this answer I now use this shell script. – loevborg Jul 9 '18 at 8:49
  • Unfortunately doesn't work when FIND contains multiple lines. – adrelanos Jan 26 at 17:09
  • There's nothing that would prevent it from working with multiple lines in FIND. Use double quoted \n. – Nowaker Jan 27 at 19:20

The replace command will do this.


Change in place:

replace text replacement -- path/to/the/file

To stdout:

replace text replacement < path/to/the/file


$ replace '.*' '[^a-z ]{1,3}' <<EOF
> r1: /.*/g
> r2: /.*/gi
r1: /[^a-z ]{1,3}/g
r2: /[^a-z ]{1,3}/gi

The replace command comes with MySQL or MariaDB.

  • 3
    take into account tht replace is deprecated and may not be disponible in the future – Rogelio Dec 11 '17 at 15:31
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    Why on earth does such basic command come with a database? – masterxilo Aug 8 '18 at 7:03
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    @masterxilo A better question might be – why does such a basic command not come with modern operating systems? ;-) – Mark Thomson Jan 22 at 4:06

You could also use perl's \Q mechanism to "quote (disable) pattern metacharacters"

perl -pe 'BEGIN {$text = q{your */text/?goes"here"}} s/\Q$text\E/replacement/g'
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    Or perl -pe 's(\Qyour */text/?goes"here")(replacement)' file – RedGrittyBrick May 9 '12 at 22:52

check out my Perl script. it do exactly what you need without implicit or explicit use of regular expression :


str_replace Search Replace File # replace in File in place

STDIN | str_replace Search Replace # to STDOUT

very handy right? I had to learn Perl to do it. because I really really need it.


You can do it by escaping your patterns. Like this:

keyword_regexp="$(printf '%s' "$keyword_raw" | sed -e 's/[]\/$*.^|[]/\\&/g')"
# keyword_regexp is now '1\/2\/3'

replacement_regexp="$(printf '%s' "$replacement_raw" | sed -e 's/[\/&]/\\&/g')"
# replacement_regexp is now '2\/3\/4'

echo 'a/b/c/1/2/3/d/e/f' | sed -e "s/$keyword_regexp/$replacement_regexp/"
# the last command will print 'a/b/c/2/3/4/d/e/f'

Credits for this solutions goes here: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/407523/escape-a-string-for-a-sed-replace-pattern

Note1: this only works for non-empty keywords. Empty keywords are not accepted by sed (sed -e 's//replacement/').

Note2: unfortunately, I don't know a popular tool that would NOT use regexp-s to solve the problem. You can write such a tool in Rust or C, but it's not there by default.

  • This completely misses the OP's point. Obviously you can escape the pattern, but for some patterns this is tedious. – icecreamsword Oct 2 '18 at 19:35
  • @icecreamsword did you read my answer below the first line? The script does escaping automatically. – VasyaNovikov Oct 3 '18 at 4:24

I pieced together a few other answers and came up with this:

function unregex {
   # This is a function because dealing with quotes is a pain.
   # http://stackoverflow.com/a/2705678/120999
   sed -e 's/[]\/()$*.^|[]/\\&/g' <<< "$1"
function fsed {
   local find=$(unregex "$1")
   local replace=$(unregex "$2")
   shift 2
   # sed -i is only supported in GNU sed.
   #sed -i "s/$find/$replace/g" "$@"
   perl -p -i -e "s/$find/$replace/g" "$@"
  • Doesn't work with newlines. Also doesn't help to escape newlines with \n. Any solution? – adrelanos Mar 29 at 8:44

You can use php's str_replace:

php -R 'echo str_replace("\|!£$%&/()=?^\"'\''","replace",$argn),PHP_EOL;'<input.txt >output.txt

Note: You would still need to escape single quotes ' and double quotes ", though.


Node.JS equivalent of @Nowaker:

export FNAME='moo.txt'
export FIND='search'
export REPLACE='rpl'
node -e 'fs=require("fs");fs.readFile(process.env.FNAME,"utf8",(err,data)=>{if(err!=null)throw err;fs.writeFile(process.env.FNAME,data.replace(process.env.FIND,process.env.REPLACE),"utf8",e=>{if(e!=null)throw e;});});'

Heres one more "almost" working way.

Use vi or vim.

Create a textfile with your substitution in it:

:%sno/my search string \\"-:#2;g('.j');\\">/my replacestring=\\"bac)(o:#46;\\">/

then execute vi or vim from the commandline:

vi -S commandfile.txt path/to/the/file

:%sno is the vi command to do search and replace without magic.

/ is my chosen separator.

:x saves and exits vi.

You need to escape backslashes '\' the forwardslash '/' may be replaced with e.g. a questionmark '?' or something else that is not in your search or replace-string, pipe '|' did not work for me tho.

ref: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6254820/perform-a-non-regex-search-replace-in-vim https://vim.fandom.com/wiki/Search_without_need_to_escape_slash http://linuxcommand.org/lc3_man_pages/vim1.html

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