On the Windows command-line, I can extract archives like this:
7za e somefile.zip
I know 7-Zip supports .rar in the GUI, but can it be done in commandline mode?
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Yes, you can extract .rar archives from the command line, but only if you use 7z, not 7za:
7za.exe (a = alone) is a standalone version of 7-Zip. 7za.exe supports only 7z, lzma, cab, zip, gzip, bzip2, Z and tar formats. 7za.exe doesn't use external modules.
The above applies to both Linux and Windows and the syntax is identical:
C:\Users\me>7z e dll-test.rar 7-Zip 9.20 Copyright (c) 1999-2010 Igor Pavlov 2010-11-18 Processing archive: dll-test.rar Extracting mso97.dll Everything is Ok Size: 3782416 Compressed: 1857291
[me ~]$ 7z e dll-test.rar 7-Zip  9.20 Copyright (c) 1999-2010 Igor Pavlov 2010-11-18 p7zip Version 9.20 (locale=en_US.UTF-8,Utf16=on,HugeFiles=on,8 CPUs) Processing archive: dll-test.rar Extracting mso97.dll Everything is Ok Size: 3782416 Compressed: 1857291
You can see all command lines in the "7-zip.chm" help file (from the installation):
Extracting rar is like extracting all files:
7z x archive.rar
"C:\Program Files\7-Zip\7z.exe" x "C:\Archives\test file.rar"