I am using bash shell in Ubuntu precise.

I am partial to symbolic links in bash even when a hard link would make more sense because they can be more easily identified with an ls. In contrast, for hard links I have to visually compare the inode numbers. This is more cumbersome compared to the output of ls on a soft link which shows the target with "-->" and can have a different colouring scheme applied. Is there a way to have ls visually differentiate hard links from "normal files"? E.g. perhaps by colouring differently files with a reference count of more than 1?

I understand that the question is not framed correctly as conceptually a hard link is just another name for the inode and so indistinguishable from a "normal file" and that there is no concept of a target as in symbolic links but you get my use case.


1 Answer 1


ls -l output shows the number of hard links to a file system entry between permissions and owner:

$ mkdir foo
$ ls -ld foo
drwxr-xr-x  2 danielbeck  staff  68 15 Aug 18:49 foo

It's 2 by default for empty directories, foo/. and foo. Every subdirectory adds one for its ... Unless you're on OS X and of questionable sanity, that's the only directory hard links you'll get.

Files, of course, only show "real" hard links, so anything but 1 indicates there's a hard link somewhere:

$ touch bar
$ ln bar baz
$ ls -l bar baz
-rw-r--r--  2 danielbeck  staff  0 15 Aug 18:52 bar
-rw-r--r--  2 danielbeck  staff  0 15 Aug 18:52 baz

My (BSD/OS X) ls has no options related to hard links, but you can write your own shell function, like the following, that prints only the hard link count and otherwise is ls -F1 (if ls -l is too cumbersome):

function lss {
    for line in $( ls -d1 $@ )
        do stat -f '%N%T (%l)' "$line"

Output for the two hardlinks and an unrelated file qux:

$ lss bar baz qux
bar (2)
baz (2)
qux (1)

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .