During the last few days, my screen froze a couple of times. After opening the chassis I discovered plenty of dust beneath my mother board. I wonder if that can cause short circuits.
Dust is a problem from the standpoint of blocking fan vents, or, if deep enough, actually insulating parts, causing overheating, but unless it contains substantial amounts of corrosive or conductive material (in which case you shouldn't be breathing it), it won't damage the electrical components (beyond any overheating damage).
What could happen, in some circumstances, is condensation inside the box, mixing with dust and creating a conductive sludge. This would generally only occur if you bring the box in from an extremely cold environment (below 0C, roughly) into a humid indoor environment. The protection from this is to wrap the box tightly in plastic before bringing it indoors, and leave it wrapped for a couple of hours, while it has time to warm up.
It hardly will cause short circuits, but it definitely leads to overheating. Your screen frozes are the consequences of this. You should clean everything with dry soft brush. Also check that all coolers are rotating. The speed of CPU fan you can see in BIOS/Power Management. Optionally you can see there the speed of other fans if they do support the feature.
I have used my air compressor for years. Dont put the nozzle less than 12 inches from anything and allow about 2 hours for condensation to evaporate after bringing back inside.Use a short air hose 25 feet or less. 50 foot hoses cause moisture in compressed air to condensate inside the hose and spit water. If really cold outside I dont do it as the condensation forming on it would be excessive when you come back in. If you have a semi warm garage to do it in it would be better. You will be amazed how much will blow out. I have a friend, pc guru who does the same. He's a mechanic also