I am trying to create a Windows store app, and have installed Visual Studio 2012 Express, but I have been confronted with a request for a developer's license. When I try to create one, they expect me to give them my phone number and name. How can I create a Microsoft Account, or developer's license without giving my personal details?
I think providing no email address is impossible. But you can try the method below so that you don't need any phone number, since that's what your are asking for. You still need a device with internet (can be any device, as long as it support the Microsoft Authenticator functionality, even the Windows Store provide apps that supports those features but I didn't try those in combination with the setup below).
The method below is still a preview feature of Azure AD, but functional and I use it in many scenario's already.
Enable: Users can use preview features for registering and managing security info – enhanced
After that, go to https://aka.ms/setupsecurityinfo (you can also create a clean user and use that user for the visual studio subscription). On that page, you can assign a second factor with the Microsoft Authenticator app, without providing your phone number. Last but not least, add the Visual Studio subscription to this user.
Give it a try.