Is this level of customization exposed to the user? I know you can rename shortcuts by going to the Start Menu folder.
No, the name of the application is held in the package manifest. To quote the MS page
Each package is defined by a globally unique identifier known as the package identity. The package identity consists of 5 tuples:
name The name of the package. For example, "myCompany.mySuite.myApp".
Each package is described through its package properties, such as these:
DisplayName The friendly name of the app.
As long as you're talking about "desktop" vs Metro/Modern apps, you can rename them in the Start Menu:
- Right-click tile / Start Menu listing
- Open File Location
- In the Explorer window that opens, notice the file path -- this is where your Start Menu shortcuts are (so you can rename other programs more easily while you're there)
- Change the shortcut name
The new name should appear on the Start Menu in a couple seconds once it's reindexed your change.