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I am new to networking.

While reading Network+ Guide Networks books, I came to Subnets but the book does not mention how many gateways a subnet can have. For example for 192.168.1.0/24 the gateway is 192.168.1.1. Can I have 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.2 as gateways for this subnet ?

In other words can I identify a subnet by its gateway? Or is the gateway identical for the subnet?

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I think you're a bit mistaken, hope this helps.

You say for subnet 192.168.1.0/24, the default gateway is 192.168.1.1, it's one possibility. You can choose anything in the range of 192.168.1.1-255 as the default gateway.

A subnet is a logical grouping of connected network devices. Nodes on a subnet tend to be located in close physical proximity to each other on a LAN.

When a subnet is connected to the internet, most likely there is a router that links the LAN to the Internet. The default gateway is the IP address of the router interface connected to the LAN. Now let's say there are two routers in the LAN, both have an interface in the LAN with the same subnet and both are connected to the Internet. On a PC you can define which default gateway to use, seen as though both will send you to the Internet.

Source: http://compnetworking.about.com/od/workingwithipaddresses/g/bldef_subnet.htm

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Actually yes, it can. You can have two IP addresses or more acting as router

A IP subnet, like 192.168.1.0/2 can have a gateway address from .1 through .254

You can have clients state their gateway to be .1 for one connection to the internet for example, and other clients set their gateway to be .254 and take path to the internet. The trickier questions is how do you automate which clients set which gateway address they use, multiple DHCP servers can happen but have to be planned carefully.

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