Note that there are two lists of relevance:
The Update history list, which lists installation attempts. Items may appear multiple times here, when they fail and are retried.
The Installed updates list, which lists currently installed updates only.
The tricky part in working with these is getting the data from them. On my machine the first list has 1258 and the second 734 items.
Here is an Autohotkey script that will get the data from them:
MouseGetPos, , , , ListView_hwnd, 2 ;2 means return HWND
;Use this line instead of the following one to copy only the selected row.
;ControlGet, selected_row_text, List, Selected, , ahk_id %ListView_hwnd%
ControlGet, selected_row_text, List, , , ahk_id %ListView_hwnd%
Gui, +ToolWindow +AlwaysOnTop -Caption
Gui, Add, Edit, unused_variable x11 y15 w950 h66, %selected_row_text%
Gui, Add, Button, x62 y84 w140 h30 +Center, Close
Gui, Show, ,
How to use it: (install Autohotkey if you don't have it already), save the script as an AHK file, run, then select any item from the Update history or Installed updates list (this also works for many other lists on Windows), leave your mouse pointer over the list, press Windows key + C, and a little dialog will appear with a text box containing all the text from the list, so that it can be copied to clipboard. Note: this is a modified script from my answer here, where there is a screenshot.
Now that you have the updates data as text, with a text editor or spreadsheet you can search, filter, sort, diff, not to mention drill down to the update ID of interest.