I get infrequently a bluescreen on my Windows 7. I would like to know, how i should start debugging this.
How can I make the bluescreen last, so i can read the error mesages?
How are these messages easy to interpret for a newbie?
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In order to stop your computer from automatically rebooting in case of a BSOD (BlueScreen Of Death), you have to change a default setting.
If you then simply google the hexadecimal number of the STOP code, that'll usually point you in the right direction. In some cases, a more elaborate error message is printed (e.g. IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL), sometimes including a driver's file name (e.g. NV4_DISP.DLL) which is very helpful.
See here for a complete list of STOP codes.
You can install a small tool that will give you details about the files involved in the BSOD cause.Bluescreen Viewer
I've used Who Crashed to investigate BSODs before; about half the time it was able to localize the problem to a single hardware component/driver. I'm not sure how it compares to @Scorpion99's tool suggestion because it's being blocked by my employers firewall.