Are there also standard specific distance limitations? (1.3,1.4, etc)
Is there also a delay that accrues as distance increases?
Without an amplifier, you can reliably send up to 15-meters (45-feet). Are there 100-feet cables without amps? Yes. Long cables can cause instability of HDCP and blinking on the screen, due to the weakened DDC signal that HDCP requires.
Active HDMI cables use electronics within the cable to boost the signal and allow for HDMI cables of up to 30 meters (98 ft). HDMI extenders that are based on dual Category 5/Category 6 cable can extend HDMI to 250 meters (820 ft), while HDMI extenders based on optical fiber can extend HDMI to 300 meters (980 ft).