Turn off Chrome while you do this, to avoid any possible conflict over who is editing or changing files.
Current Tabs in Time Machine (or whatever backup software you're using) from a time before Chrome lost your tabs.
You'll find it here on a Mac:
~/Library/Application\ Support/Google/Chrome/Default/Current\ Tabs\
or possibly (starting around July 2021):
~/Library/Application\ Support/Google/Chrome/Default/Sessions/Current\ Tabs\
or if you use Chrome Canary:
~/Library/Application\ Support/Google/Chrome\ Canary/Default/Sessions/Current\ Tabs
Rename the existing
Current Tabs to something else, and restore the one from your backup.
You should now see the recently closed tabs under History → Recently Closed.
(If you do not have a backup, or just don't have one handy, you can also try using
Last Tabs. It seems like it ought to work, but I have not tested it.)
UPDATE: Since this is likely to happen again (and again and again and...), it's a good idea to take pre-emptive measures to be prepared. The best pre-emptive measure that I've found to make session recovery easier when Chrome drops the ball is to install the Session Buddy Chrome plugin. It does a far better job than the built-in session management, and also better than any other plugin I've tried. (It's also the highest rated, at the moment I'm writing this.)