In a case like this, one could use an hexadecimal editor and search if there is an abnormally long sequence of 00s interrupting an otherwise complex data area. Typically, if at some point you see a multiple of 512 bytes of blank data, starting at a 512 multiple offset relative to the begining of the file (sector boundary), in an area where there should be (seemingly) random characters (if it's a binary file), or a readable sequence of characters (if it's a text file), then you can be pretty sure that some corruption has occured.
Of course, for that to be manageable would at least require a least of the bad sectors' LBAs, it's not practically possible to check every single file like this. The best course of action if there are bad sectors on a storage unit is to first clone it with a suitable tool (ddrescue is often recommanded), then run CHKDSK or any other tool designed to attempt an in-place repair, which can succeed or fail but will never explicitly report what the actual outcome was. Otherwise, the only reasonable way to detect such errors is to be attentive to any kind of glitch when later reading / playing / running the files that were stored on that device, and then check them with the method indicated above.