Does sudden shut down due to power failure do any harm to the underlying OS or hardware ? My laptop's battery is dead, so sometimes due to power failure or due to some other reason there is an improper shutdown.
Does it cause any harm ?
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If the operating has data in memory that has not been written, including updates to the directory, then a power loss would mean loss of data or corruption of the directory data. If the shutdown was at the worst time possible, it would be during a write operation in which case more than one file may be damaged.
A long time ago I was running the SCO Xenix operating system and I lost power during a storm. When the power came back the operating was so corrupted that I lost everything on the hard drive.