According to the Microsoft Community Forum members, you cannot cannot disable this Microsoft Windows feature (in the Windows settings at least).
the program gets to control this in the same way that the program gets to control the name of it's title bar. If the program tells the taskbar to show progress, the Taskbar will obey.
This means that if Google Chrome were to provide an "off switch" for this feature, then this would totally be possible; "if the program tells the taskbar to show progress, the Taskbar will obey", therefore it the program (Google Chrome) tells the taskbar not to show the progress, then the taskbar will obey (and not show the progress).
In the Google Chrome Help Forum, people have already decided to discuss the issue and have gotten nowhere. Despite the old forum timeline, Google still has not implemented a solution to disable it.
From my research, this is not possible. Sorry for the bad news.