When using afconvert for AAC output, I find little documentation on the format variants under the m4af category:

'aac', 'aace', 'aacf', 'aach', 'aacl', 'aacp', 'alac', 'paac'.

I can guess probably 'aac' is the basis, 'alac' is the lossless format, 'aach' is the HE-AAC. What about the rest? The differences?

Same for other variants under other format tags.


I got it myself. These tags are defined by CoreAudio framework and can be found in Xcode's Framework header CoreAudioTypes.h

I'll quote the snippets from OS X 10.9 Mavericks here:

    @enum           Format IDs
    @abstract       The four char code IDs used to identify individual formats of audio data.
    @constant       kAudioFormatLinearPCM
                        Linear PCM, uses the standard flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatAC3
                        AC-3, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormat60958AC3
                        AC-3 packaged for transport over an IEC 60958 compliant digital audio
                        interface. Uses the standard flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatAppleIMA4
                        Apples implementation of IMA 4:1 ADPCM, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC
                        MPEG-4 Low Complexity AAC audio object, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4CELP
                        MPEG-4 CELP audio object, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4HVXC
                        MPEG-4 HVXC audio object, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4TwinVQ
                        MPEG-4 TwinVQ audio object type, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMACE3
                        MACE 3:1, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMACE6
                        MACE 6:1, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatULaw
                        µLaw 2:1, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatALaw
                        aLaw 2:1, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatQDesign
                        QDesign music, has no flags
    @constant       kAudioFormatQDesign2
                        QDesign2 music, has no flags
    @constant       kAudioFormatQUALCOMM
                        QUALCOMM PureVoice, has no flags
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEGLayer1
                        MPEG-1/2, Layer 1 audio, has no flags
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEGLayer2
                        MPEG-1/2, Layer 2 audio, has no flags
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEGLayer3
                        MPEG-1/2, Layer 3 audio, has no flags
    @constant       kAudioFormatTimeCode
                        A stream of IOAudioTimeStamps, uses the IOAudioTimeStamp flags (see
    @constant       kAudioFormatMIDIStream
                        A stream of MIDIPacketLists where the time stamps in the MIDIPacketList are
                        sample offsets in the stream. The mSampleRate field is used to describe how
                        time is passed in this kind of stream and an AudioUnit that receives or
                        generates this stream can use this sample rate, the number of frames it is
                        rendering and the sample offsets within the MIDIPacketList to define the
                        time for any MIDI event within this list. It has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatParameterValueStream
                        A "side-chain" of Float32 data that can be fed or generated by an AudioUnit
                        and is used to send a high density of parameter value control information.
                        An AU will typically run a ParameterValueStream at either the sample rate of
                        the AudioUnit's audio data, or some integer divisor of this (say a half or a
                        third of the sample rate of the audio). The Sample Rate of the ASBD
                        describes this relationship. It has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatAppleLossless
                        Apple Lossless, the flags indicate the bit depth of the source material.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_HE
                        MPEG-4 High Efficiency AAC audio object, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_LD
                        MPEG-4 AAC Low Delay audio object, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_ELD
                        MPEG-4 AAC Enhanced Low Delay audio object, has no flags. This is the formatID of
                        the base layer without the SBR extension. See also kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_ELD_SBR
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_ELD_SBR
                        MPEG-4 AAC Enhanced Low Delay audio object with SBR extension layer, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_HE_V2
                        MPEG-4 High Efficiency AAC Version 2 audio object, has no flags. 
    @constant       kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_Spatial
                        MPEG-4 Spatial Audio audio object, has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatAMR
                        The AMR Narrow Band speech codec.
    @constant       kAudioFormatAudible
                        The format used for Audible audio books. It has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatiLBC
                        The iLBC narrow band speech codec. It has no flags.
    @constant       kAudioFormatDVIIntelIMA
                        DVI/Intel IMA ADPCM - ACM code 17.
    @constant       kAudioFormatMicrosoftGSM
                        Microsoft GSM 6.10 - ACM code 49.
    @constant       kAudioFormatAES3
                        This format is defined by AES3-2003, and adopted into MXF and MPEG-2
                        containers and SDTI transport streams with SMPTE specs 302M-2002 and
                        331M-2000. It has no flags.
    kAudioFormatLinearPCM               = 'lpcm',
    kAudioFormatAC3                     = 'ac-3',
    kAudioFormat60958AC3                = 'cac3',
    kAudioFormatAppleIMA4               = 'ima4',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC                = 'aac ',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4CELP               = 'celp',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4HVXC               = 'hvxc',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4TwinVQ             = 'twvq',
    kAudioFormatMACE3                   = 'MAC3',
    kAudioFormatMACE6                   = 'MAC6',
    kAudioFormatULaw                    = 'ulaw',
    kAudioFormatALaw                    = 'alaw',
    kAudioFormatQDesign                 = 'QDMC',
    kAudioFormatQDesign2                = 'QDM2',
    kAudioFormatQUALCOMM                = 'Qclp',
    kAudioFormatMPEGLayer1              = '.mp1',
    kAudioFormatMPEGLayer2              = '.mp2',
    kAudioFormatMPEGLayer3              = '.mp3',
    kAudioFormatTimeCode                = 'time',
    kAudioFormatMIDIStream              = 'midi',
    kAudioFormatParameterValueStream    = 'apvs',
    kAudioFormatAppleLossless           = 'alac',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_HE             = 'aach',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_LD             = 'aacl',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_ELD            = 'aace',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_ELD_SBR        = 'aacf',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_ELD_V2         = 'aacg',    
    kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_HE_V2          = 'aacp',
    kAudioFormatMPEG4AAC_Spatial        = 'aacs',
    kAudioFormatAMR                     = 'samr',
    kAudioFormatAudible                 = 'AUDB',
    kAudioFormatiLBC                    = 'ilbc',
    kAudioFormatDVIIntelIMA             = 0x6D730011,
    kAudioFormatMicrosoftGSM            = 0x6D730031,
    kAudioFormatAES3                    = 'aes3'
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