So, the word around the Internet is that the
dropbox.py command-line client does not work with the Windows or OS X versions of the Dropbox client. I can attest to this fact (for OS X, at least), having labored in vain to get Dropbox synchronizing to an OS X Server shell account at my university. Dig as deep as you like inside the app bundle, you won't find a headless daemon that you can run standalone without the GUI like you can on Linux. The Dropbox daemon is inseparable from the GUI on OS X.
There used to be a Votebox ballot for this feature, but since Votebox has been disabled, the best you can do is go to this topic in the forums and pine away for this feature in desperation with all of the other users there. Unfortunately, to make matters worse, the Mac Dropbox client is also not AppleScriptable either, as noted here.
You may find this project interesting, though. Although it's not very Dropboxy in that it doesn't do two-way, automatic background synchronization, it can be run without installation on any *nix system with
curl available (which, technically, includes a properly-equipped Cygwin installation on Windows). It might be sufficient for copying a few boilerplate config files down from your Dropbox account, or updating a file or two after you've modified them locally, but at that point, you're almost better learning to use Git.
- Dropbox forums topic "Pause/resume from CLI"
- GitHub.com andreafabrizi/Dropbox-Uploader
- Guided tour of Git version control fundamentals