Windows supports the use of smart cards, but it may or may not be "faster" than simply entering a regular password. It consists of inserting the smart card into the reader and entering a pin number:
To log on to a Windows 7-based computer with a smart card:
Connect the smart card reader to your computer, if necessary.
Insert your smart card into the smart card reader.
At the logon screen, click Switch User.
Click the smart card icon, type your PIN, and then press Enter.
Windows 7 also introduced the Biometric Framework, which can work with fingerprint scanners to replace the regular password.
There are also third-party biometric solutions that replace the Windows password with a fingerprint or handprint scan. Some of them have the capability of identifying the user and logging them on in one step, speeding up the process.
I know your question applies to Windows 7, but in Windows 8 the "picture password" login method was introduced. It works similar to a pattern unlock in Android smartphones, in which a user draws a pattern instead of entering a password. There are several third-party alternatives that offer some form of pattern-based login.