If you start Matlab without the Java Virtual Machine, you don't get its standard GUI which is implemented in Java, but Matlab runs in console mode, meaning it uses the keyboard input / screen output routines provided by the shell it is started from. Under a Unix-like system, nowadays this is usually a terminal emulator running under X, and the font used can be changed by using the settings of that terminal emulator. I have to admit I haven't ever done this under Windows, but I think you'd start Matlab from the Windows Command Prompt (cmd.exe), and you could change font settings in the Command Prompt program (try right-click, or system menu).
However, the screen shot you show doesn't have the title "Command Prompt", but "MATLAB Command Window". To me that looks like you weren't successful using that option, but you still have the standard MATLAB Java GUI. Moreover, a look at the command line options of Matlab under Windows shows a) that all options start with a "-", not a "/", and b) that there is no option "nojvm", at least in 2013b. My guess is that Matlab simply ignored the option "/nojvm".
You can change the font used in the Matlab Command Window in the preferences. Since you don't seem to have the menu, type
preferences into the command window.