If I make a system restore, it removes programs that I installed recently. But will it do the same for recent updates, or are they permanent?
Yes, of of course. It just restores your PC to the previous state! Including everything.
But actually it won't remove everything completely. It dumps all the old files into a reserved folder which you cannot access.
It removes them without really removing them. The restore point is a collection of all the files, configuration and registry settings that were needed for windows to run when the setpoint was recorded.
This is known as the system state and is in fact what you back up with
Windows Backup if you want an off-machine backup of a restore point.
When you do a system restore, it overwrites the current system state without doing any actual uninstalling of any recent updates. Windows Update can read the current system state and reapply updates that it can recognize as needing to be reapplied, though this may fail.
Where you can have issues is when there are various non-os patches that get a partial overwrite of some of the installed files when the system restore is run.
Yeah, Windows will remove those programs if you restore the system to a previous restore point and maybe recent updates too. I'm not a user of Windows system restore because of issues and complexities.
I have Deep Freeze on my machine through which I can easily manage the system restore. A simple restart solves most PC problems.