The simple answer is yes, it SHOULD work. There are many who have fit a PCIe x16 card of some sort, usually a video card, into a PCIe x1 slot through manual modification of either the slot or the card. That is, by either cutting the back off of the slot or cutting a notch into the card in the correct location. This is because the PCIe specification allows for PCIe cards to auto negotiate the lanes up or down.
But sometimes, a x16 card does not respond like it is suppose to when it is modified for the x1 slot, even though the PCIe spec says it should; and therein it doesn't work. But this is an atypical situation. There are x16 slots on boards that are only x4 or x8 electrically by design. But between cutting slots on boards or cutting circuit boards and slowing things down 16x, sometimes there are hiccups.
Again, it should work if you make your modifications correctly.