I'm currently studying computer networks and the question came to my mind, how it is physically possible for the NICs of two networking computers to determine the clock rate of incoming datastreams.

To be more precise, my questions are:

  • If X sends a bitstream of 001100011100101 to Y (e.g. over 10BASE-T Ethernet), how does the hardware clock signal of Y's NIC synchronize to that bitstream?
  • Why wouldn't Y potentially interprete the stream as 0101100?
  • Is there a dynamic way to do this or is this all part of the standard?
  • Does phase offset matter?

I searched for various phrases that describe the problem on the internet but did not come accross an satisfying answere, maybe it's too basic.

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