Brasero and K3b don't see a DVD device because your local computer's OS kernel doesn't see a DVD device.
Mounting filesystems remotely is easy; there are network protocols like CIFS, NFS, AFS, and even SSHFS to handle all the details of file access. But low-level device access is a different animal -- note that none of these protocols would allow, for example, repartitioning or reformatting the filesystem being accessed.
You would need a low-level protocol like iSCSI, FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet), or ATAoE (ATA over Ethernet) to do what you want to do. This would involve driver-level software on the remote device to export the device, and driver-level software on the local device to attach to it. There's Windows software called Starport that claims this capability, and a Linux-iSCSI site that may give you more information about what's currently possible.
But generally, these technologies are used in corporate data centers with expensive hardware. For general home use, you really want to run Brasero on your remote computer and just display the GUI window on your local system (via X, VNC, or some other remote desktop technology).