Are there any computer components that could be placed somewhere between the PSU and wall outlet to minimize the chance that the power supply will blow the motherboard and vice versa? For example, would a surge protector, redundant power supply, or uninterrupted power supply be of any use here?
No. Based on the emphasized part.
Don't get me wrong, there are many very good reasons for putting a surge protector or voltage-stabilized uninterruptable power supply (UPS) in the computer's AC mains feed line, and in fact I'm pretty sure I lost my previous computer to unfiltered AC. But something like that will not prevent computer-internal damage caused by a faulty or malfunctioning (computer-internal) PSU, because the surge protector cannot know whether the current draw is a result of normal but higher-powered use, or if it is the result of a malfunction. I believe most surge protectors are overvoltage protectors, not current surge protectors (also known under the term "fuses"). It is also important to put everything that is hooked up to the computer on equally good protection; while not very likely, if a voltage spike can jump through your printer to the computer, the fact that the computer is on a filtered power supply won't help much. Many years ago now, I had a CRT monitor kill a motherboard through the VGA cable through the graphics card.
Suppose you disconnect your machine's motherboard from its current PSU and then connect it to a new PSU that supplies a lot more power. What can you do to make sure that your motherboard doesn't get damaged by the new PSU or fail to power on?
You go the extra mile, pay a bit of a premium and buy a high-quality PSU.
An electrical component -- any electrical component -- will only draw as much power as it needs from its power source. The power source must be able to supply the amount of power drawn by the component at a voltage that the component can work with. Consider the lightbulb you hook to the same wall outlet that can just as easily power your hairdryer or vacuum cleaner, both of which can draw on the order of 100 times more power than a lightbulb. (Kilowatt range rather than tens of watts.)
The power supply rating tells you (one part of) how much power the power supply is capable of supplying. (Another very important aspect especially in high-powered setups is the power supply per-rail capacity. A third aspect is the amount of power it can supply at various voltages. The two latter are very often closely related but they are not necessarily the same.)
A high-quality power supply will contain circuitry in addition to what is absolutely necessary to make it supply power at the necessary voltages. Particularly, as has been pointed out elsewhere in response to this question, it will have protective circuitry to prevent for example an overvoltage condition causing damage. This of course is not a guarantee, but it significantly betters the odds that a PSU malfunction or even a short circuit will not lead to further hardware damage.