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Are the keybindings used by Vi/Vim (such as hjkl for directions, x for delete, y for yank, etc.) a part of a more general standard for efficient keyboard use used in other programs? Do there exist any guidelines for incorporating these keybindings into one's own software? I'm curious because I noticed that there are programs other than Vi/Vim which also use similar keybindings, and it's also possible to use these on command-line in Linux.



They are quite common but I wouldn't call them ubiquitous. It is up to programmers to make them work in their programs. Off the top of my head hjkl keybindings work in alsamixer, GNU screen, less, vimperator, mutt, ncdu. OTOH they don't work by default in moc (you need to modify keymap file, very easy to do) or fluxbox root menu. I got used to them although I use Emacs on the daily basis. Using xmodmap you can make a combination of some key+j to move down and so on so that hjkl work in all programs.

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