After discovering that my System Reserved partition was much smaller than Microsoft recommends, I decided to use GParted to extend it with some of the unallocated space. Unfortunately, there was no unallocated space between the System Reserved and the Windows partitions. This meant I had to move the Windows partition to the right of the unallocated memory. The GParted manual told me that such an operation would require the MBR to be fixed using the Windows 7 installation disc. As I had already used the disc to fix the MBR a couple of times after installation of new storage, I started moving the partition right away.
When the operation completed, I booted from the installation disc, entered my preferred localization settings, and clicked Repair your computer. However, the screen that hit me was not the usual system repair where I would select the correct Windows installation and so on. All the System Repair left me was frustration and a message saying
This version of System Recovery Options is not compatible with the version of Windows you are trying to repair. Try using a recovery disc that is compatible with this version of Windows.
System Reapir was just fine right before the partitioning, and I knew perfectly well that I was using the correct disc. Unfortunately, there was no button saying "I caught your lie, now take me to the command prompt".
TL;DR: Moved partition, System Repair doesn't work
Is there anything that can make Windows bootable again?