I'm curious about how the PC actually sees files, and after I did an assignment about files and used hex dump to check if it was writing correctly, I wanted to try it with other file types (actually I'm just using a Notepad++ hex dump plugin), like images (like, 1 black pixel), in different formats, but I didn't understand very well (like why the black pixel in .gif has so much more stuff than .png or .jpg). Is there anything like a "manual" of some sort to how images (and if possible, any type of file) are "encoded" or "encrypted" (don't know the right word for it)? Or just a hint at what I'm actually looking for so that I can look it up myself? I'm not an image expert or anything, I just know there's gamma, alpha (transparency)...and that's all hehe.
There's no general directory of file type specs, and some of them are not publically documented. JPEG PNG and GIF are, however:
JPEG, file layout is on page 5.
PNG, file structure starts on page 12.
GIF, this one is not as well-written. The "header" section will tell you what the start of the file means, the rest is scattered in the previous sections.
Generally, you can find the specification for a file type by just searching " specification" on Google, and it'll be the first result. Be prepared to do a lot of tedious byte-counting.