The system is Windows 7 x64 SP1 and is completely patched.
I've run antivirus scans (ESET 7.x), Malwarebytes, ComboFix, ADWCleaner, CCleaner, HitmanPro, and JRT (JunkRemovalTool). These seemed to have removed the Astromenda toolbark.
I've reset the WinSock and even tried a new profile, but cannot access the internet through any browser (IE, Chrome, and FireFox). I can tracert and ping without any issues, so DNS is good.
I don't see any odd startup services or programs, or any programs that are running in Task Manager that don't (seem) to belong.
I can browse when in safe mode with networking... Any ideas?