I have both my computer and monitor plugged into an extension cord and then into a power strip (I've checked, and both the extension cord and the strip can handle the load and have been handling it for a while now). I was trying to plug a charger into a power strip at the end where the switch is to turn the strip off, and I was in a hurry because the device I was trying to charge was very low on battery. In my haste I accidentally pushed down the switch on the power strip just enough for the power strip to turn off briefly then switch back on. My computer restarted, or at least, that's what it seemed like. I didn't notice until I'd plugged in the device on a different wall outlet and came back to see my computer looking like it had just started up even though beforehand I had Chrome and Steam open. I.e, on the desktop and with Skype open (Skype is set to automatically start when I start my computer). At this point, I turned off the computer through the UI and waited about 10 minutes to start it back up (my line of thinking was to do this so it would have fully shut down and started up cleanly). Could this have damaged my computer at all? It still works fine and sounds like it has been, and I haven't seen any corrupted files so far. My computer is an Asus M51AD-B05. This is the exact computer I have.
The most likely issue something like this would cause is data corruption (if your computer was in the middle of a write operation when the power was cut). Most of the time, however, you probably won't have a problem.
You may want to run chkdsk though, just to make sure.