How does the UEFI offer an advantage over BIOS architecture?
Why is it so difficult install Linux(read Ubuntu) as a dual boot option on a UEFI Windows 8/8.1 PC? I say it's difficult because of this guide on Ubuntu help.
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The major advantages that UEFI provides are:
1. Better disk support: UEFI supports GPT (GUID Partitioned Table), which adds support for very large hard drives (e.g. those in excess of 2TB.). BIOS uses MBR, which had a size limitation of 2TB because of 32bit tables. UEFI has 64bit tables allowing the boot devices to be larger than 2TB. This has a lot of advantages in the longer run.
2. Bootloaders no longer needed: This is the mechanism the UEFI spec provides for operating systems to make themselves available for booting: the operating system is intended to install a bootloader which loads the OS kernel and so on to an EFI system partition, and add an entry to the UEFI boot manager configuration with a name – obviously, this will usually be derived from the operating system’s name – and the location of the bootloader (in EFI executable format) that is intended for loading that operating system.
3. Added features: UEFI has added support to the following features which were not available with BIOS
4. Better interface: UEFI was designed with more room so as to accommodate graphics, thus facilitating a neat GUI.
5. Faster boot-up.
Regarding the Linux difficulty you mentioned, It was initially because many Windows 8 PCs shipped back then were not allowed to turn off secure boot. Secure boot was something that wouldn't allow an OS to boot without a PKI certificate, which had to be added to the UEFI's list. This was later resolved.
These are in fact 2 questions in one, so here are my answers: