Is there any way that I could simply double click on a document file and have it open Chrome straight into google docs?
Google Data team today released a new Windows client that lets you easily upload multiple documents from the desktop to your Google Docs account
Files can be uploaded to Google Docs via the right-click menu or through the drag-and-drop functionality.
Did you tried gdocsopen? It will upload you document to google docs, and then it can either open a browser of your choice, or edit the document directly in the gdocsopen interface.
Google has released a Chrome extension for just this. It will open the document in chrome directly in a google docs viewer tab and give you the opportunity to save to your google docs if you chose. Check it out: Docs PDF/PowerPoint Viewer (by Google)