Checking the standard ATX connector pinout it mainly gives out "standard" positive voltages, like +3.3VDC, +5VDC and +12VDC. There is one exception, pin 14, which actually gives out -12VDC:
Based on the ATX12V specification I can see that it only needs to supply 500mA of -12VDC (compared to the other voltages where even the +5V standby voltage is at least 2A), but I cannot find which component of an ATX computer requires this unusual voltage to operate.
(There is also pin 20 with -5V, but that pin is deprecated, and the deprecation note clearly say that this voltage was used to power some features in old ISA cards. -12VDC is still not deprecated and required based on the spec, so I guess it's still used somewhere in a modern computer)