Is there a client (or another way) for the Xbox One to connect to a Windows PC over Remote Desktop Connection?
This can be done between Windows 10 and an Xbox One console with more recent updates.
Note that this is currently, as of my post, in Beta. It also will require a decent network connection between the PC and the console (preferably an Ethernet connection though I've done it before over WiFi as well). You will need an Xbox controller connected to the PC to control the console (I've used an Xbox 360 wired controller and it works just fine).
What you need is an Xbox One and a Windows 10 computer connected to the same network. Install the Xbox app from the Windows 10 app store. When it is installed, run it and log in. Look in the app for an icon that looks like an Xbox One. Tap or click it and it will let you connect to an Xbox One on the network.
The console will initially have to be on so that it can find it on the network and register it with the app. You may also have to enable streaming in the Xbox One settings to allow this feature to work. After it is registered with the PC, you can turn the console on by initiating a connection from the app.
Only some apps are allowed to stream to the PC. Notably, from my experience, you cannot watch TV or certain video content while streaming to the PC..