I am writing an essay on video games and naturally I am referencing a number of them as examples. Since we are in Computer Science, we use the IEEE reference style and there is a section that specifically shows how should a computer game be referenced:

[4] The Hobbit: The prelude to the Lord of the Rings. [CD-ROM]. United Kingdom: Vivendi Universal Games, 2003.

So what type of entity do I use in Bibtex and which fields do I set?

Note: I am using the IEEEtr bibliography style in latex.

Thank you!

3 Answers 3


Try this

   author = "Veivendi Universal Games",
   title = "The Hobbit: The Prelude to the Lord of the Rings",
   howpublished = "[CD-ROM]",
   year = 2003,


For anyone using the IEEEtran.bst style, the current accepted answer will abbreviate the author's names. Although it still doesn't match the requested style in the Question, I use the following format:

    title         = "{T}he {H}obbit: {T}he {P}relude to the {L}ord of the {R}ings",
    organization  = "Vivendi Universal Games",
    location      = "United Kingdom",
    howpublished  = "[PC CD-ROM]",
    year          = "2003",

[63] “The Hobbit: The Prelude to the Lord of the Rings,” [PC CD-ROM], Vivendi Universal Games, 2003

Note that in order to avoid changes in capitalisations, the necessary characters must be in {}. An easier solution is to stick the whole title in braces:

"{The Hobbit: The Prelude to the Lord of the Rings}",

This solution also leaves author open for games developed by individuals, e.g.:

    author        = "Reeves, Quinton and Salzman, Lee",
    title         = "{R}ed {E}clipse",
    year          = "2011",
    note          = "v1.3.1",
    url           = "http://www.redeclipse.net",

As an aside, if you use the url field, IEEEtran automatically inserts an '[Online]':

[62] Q. Reeves and L. Salzman, “Red Eclipse,” 2011, v1.3.1. [Online]. Available: http://www.redeclipse.net


why don't you just use a book or misc type? Books also have titles and publishers. Just play a little with the different fields until the result suits you. The original Bibtex type can not be seen in the output file.

Regards Nick

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