What you are talking about is a Wireless Broadband or a Fixed Wireless and also known as Wireless mesh network . Also it is called a point-to-multipoint network.
Wireless Broadband Network
A term you may recognize in association with wireless broadband internet service includes wireless network. A wireless network is a single broadband internet arrangement established for your home or office.
It requires several pieces of equipment that are all one-time cost items: a wireless transceiver, such as a wireless card or antenna, and a wireless router. In addition, you will have to purchase the broadband service, which is a continual expense.
You cannot utilize your wireless broadband tools without an ongoing broadband service. Together, the wireless devices and the broadband internet service make up your wireless broadband network. When employed, the network will send data to your broadband internet connection via these wireless tools that utilize a special wireless technology (known as Wi-Fi). As a result you will be able to access the internet from anywhere inside the coverage area, as determined by the location of your wireless router.
Got that from: http://whatismyipaddress.com/wireless
Also here is a picture of this kind of networking: