I don't have a phone that can upload a picture to Google Goggles... is there a way I can use this image search engine from something that isn't a phone, like my laptop? Some sort of extension accessing the Google Goggles API would make the most sense to me.
I think Google Goggles only runs on Android 1.6+ phones
So either you would have to run a Dev-emulator on your desktop or at the moment it is simply not possible. And since it's 1.6+ only, you won't be seeing a lot of the current HTC phones running it, which might slow down general adoption.
I have created a desktop version called Desktop Reverse Image Search,
which can make image search on desktop possible.
You can use Google's image search using images option, which is a lot like having Google Goggles on your desktop: http://blip.tv/howtophil/google-goggles-for-your-desktop-or-laptop-pc-mac-etc-6612755