I have a sound card lacking hardware volume control (Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Surround 5.1 connected on USB). Yet PulseAudio seems to think it does have hardware volume control. When I adjust the master volume with pavucontrol nothing happens. How do I force it to do the master volume adjusting in software? (I don't want to use softvol in ALSA in addition to PulseAudio, since this would increase latency and I know PulseAudio does software mixing anyway).

I'm using PulseAudio 5.0.

2 Answers 2


Similar situation with an EMU 0202 USB audio card. Alsa shows a "PCM" mixer control that doesn't actually do anything except mute the device.

$ amixer -c USB

Simple mixer control 'PCM',0
  Capabilities: pvolume pswitch pswitch-joined
  Playback channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: Playback 0 - 200
  Front Left: Playback 200 [100%] [0.00dB] [on]
  Front Right: Playback 200 [100%] [0.00dB] [on]

The pulseaudio sink's HW_VOLUME_CTRL flag comes from the alsa-mixer paths configured for the default profile-set:


[Element PCM]
switch = mute
volume = merge

You can tell pulseaudio to ignore it, and pulseaudio will control the volume in software instead, using something along the lines of:


[Element PCM]
switch   = mute
volume   = ignore


auto-profiles = yes

[Mapping emu-usb-stereo]
device-strings = hw:%f
channel-map = left,right
paths-output = emu-usb-output

Then tell pulseaudio to use your customized profile for this specific card, using either an udev ENV{PULSE_PROFILE_SET}=emu-usb.conf rule, or loading the alsa-card manually:


load-module module-alsa-card device_id=USB name="emu-usb" card_name="emu-usb" profile_set=emu-usb.conf profile="output:emu-usb-output" ...

This results in a pulseaudio alsa_output.emu-usb.emu-usb-stereo sink without the HW_VOLUME flag, and the normal pulse volume control works from alsa applications.

  • Thanks, it took me a while to get the names right and to make the udev rule work, but it works perfectly.
    – Watcom
    Nov 30, 2015 at 23:27
  • Thanks for this! Note that you can use absolute paths for the profile set and paths, so that you don't need to edit files in /usr -- see for example bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=110311#c11
    – Jim Paris
    Feb 23, 2020 at 4:15
  • I see this behavior with a cheap USB sound card which does functional hardware master volume for jack output but not for optical output (in the same jack socket).
    – eudoxos
    Mar 10, 2020 at 18:33

A solution who seems easier to do and maintain for USB driver was found in in the ArchWiki (again): https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/PulseAudio#Keyboard_volume_control

Find your sink label(int) with:

pactl list sinks short

Then you can control the volume and mute the sink corresponding to the USB drivers (let's suppose 1) with:

sh -c "pactl set-sink-mute 1 false ; pactl set-sink-volume 1 +5%"

FInally you can add those commands to your system shortcuts (or alias) to control volume from the keyboard anywhere.

  • Thanks, but I don't see how this is related to my question (hardware volume control versus software volume control).
    – Watcom
    Aug 25, 2016 at 16:06

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