I don't know anything about Cloudera or Google Compute Engine's access limitations. You don't even say whether you have ssh. Here are a few things you can try...
Assuming your laptop is Linux or BSD or maybe even Mac-based, you have SSH, need a GUI, and have SSH access on the server, you could create an ssh tunnel on your local machine. Open a terminal (xterm is fine) and run
ssh -D 8080 -C -N email@example.com
Do not close the terminal until you're done proxying!
Then open chromium with:
If you don't have chromium, you'll need to configure socks manually (e.g., in Firefox). I use chromium only for this purpose and Firefox for nearly everything else.
You should be browsing as if you are local! http://localhost:7180 should work.
When done, ctrl+C out of the ssh tunnel you created or close the terminal.
If the above is unworkable: assuming you have ssh and you can live with a text-based administration you could do
ssh -t remote.machine "lynx localhosthost:7180"
in an xterm. You may need to install lynx on Ubuntu.
You may not be able to control the ports you have access to, but since it seems you have ssh access and the machine is yours to do with as you please, maybe install x2go. It's a pretty fast Linux remote desktop solution and it uses ssh.