The headphone port (3.55mm jack) in my desktop's front panel produces static noise when the USB 2.0 port next to it is connected to the motherboard. According to this answer, you can solve this by "modifying the circuitboard so the ground connectors are no longer connected to the headphone ground pin".

I would like to know if cutting the ground cable of my desktop's front panel USB connector will fix this, and if it does, will it have any adverse effects on my desktop?

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    Yes; You don't want to be doing this. The ground cable is often used as a reference voltage to determine the high and low value of a data line. If it doesn't exist you will cause yourself problems. – Ramhound Apr 9 '15 at 10:42
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    By "static noise" do you mean 60-cycle hum or sporadic static. If the latter, cutting or modifying the ground won't affect it. Some old fashioned cleaning with cotton swab and alcohol might help. If the former then there must be a jumper of some sort going from the sound card or motherboard to the headphone jack. If there are just two wires in that jumper, then again, modifying ground isn't going to affect it. I'd try replacing the port myself. – BillDOe Apr 9 '15 at 23:52
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    @Jorge24: Don't believe everything you read on the Internet. There are endless examples of people thinking they discovered the cause of a problem when it was either something unique to their setup or something else they did that was actually the fix. It is extremely rare that you will fix a problem at all, or fix it without causing a different problem, by modifying the motherboard or making fundamental changes to the system. BTW, "your hard drive spins it creates a varying magnetic field giving you noise in your line" (from the link on which your link was based) = BS – fixer1234 Apr 10 '15 at 1:30
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    @Jorge24: It's possible there is a ground loop, but you can create a new problem by randomly disconnecting a ground. Proper wiring would be a single ground connection between devices and then shielding grounded at only one end. You need to test the grounding of every device that's interconnected to see if/where this practice was not followed, and correct it in the right place. – fixer1234 Apr 10 '15 at 4:14
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    BTW, the effect of a ground loop is typically hum. If static is related to a ground problem, it's more likely bad shielding (lack of grounding), which wouldn't be solved by breaking a ground connection. It isn't clear how the problem you describe would be related to a grounding issue. – fixer1234 Apr 10 '15 at 4:29

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